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轮回的马 發表於 2017-12-9 17:25

鲍尔.马尔登诗三首 陈彦译

鲍尔.马尔登诗三首
陈彦译
勃朗里为何走了?*

勃朗里为何走了?他又去了哪里,
即使现在也是一个谜。
因为如果哪个人应当是满足的
那人就是他;两英亩大麦,
一英亩土豆,四只小公牛,
一头奶牛,一座板石的农舍。
他最后被看见外出耕地
是在一个三月的早晨,一大清早。

到了中午,勃朗里的事情就传开了;
他们发现所有被抛弃的东西,还有
没损坏的才用过的索具,他那对黑色的
马匹,像男人和他的女人,
不停腾挪着它们的体重
在支撑腿间,又顾盼着未来。


Why Brownlee Left?

Why Brownlee left, and where he went,
Is a mystery even now.
For if a man should have been content
It was him; two acres of barley,
One of potatoes, four bullocks,
A milker, a slated farmhouse.
He was last seen going out to plough
On a March morning, bright and early.

By noon Brownlee was famous;
They had found all abandoned, with
The last rig unbroken, his pair of black
Horses, like man and wife,
Shifting their weight from foot to
Foot, and gazing into the future.

*这首的微妙,就在于它没有直接回答我们勃朗里出走的原因,而是通过状物,通过描写他抛下的两匹马的反应,来让我们感悟爱尔兰乡村生活那种一成不变的压抑,如同勃朗里的马在他出走后焦躁不安的反应,好似一对夫妇渴望去过未来的新生活,那么勃朗里本人的出走会不会出于同样的,对新生活的自由渴望呢?


《蛙》*

让我们设想有另一场小型的
暴动
在这片碎石中。
他的眼睛绝配这种泡沫
在我精神层面的。
我将锤子和凿子放置一旁
用铲子携带着它。

爱尔兰的全部人口
繁衍自一对夫妇,他俩被留下来
彻夜站岗,在一个位于
剑桥三一学院花园的小池塘,
两瓶酒留在那里冻得发抖
在英国合并法案颁布后。

的确,在这个故事里存在的是
一种伦理。一种因着我们时代的伦理。
假如我将其置于我的脑中
并从中榨出它,会是如何的,
好似那新鲜榨出的青柠汁,
又或一杯柠檬冰沙?

《The Frog》

Comes to mind as another small
upheaval
amongst the rubble.
His eye matches exactly the bubble
in my spirit-level.
I set aside hammer and chisel
and take him on the trowel.

The entire population of Ireland
springs from a pair left to stand
overnight in a pond
in the gardens of Trinity College,
two bottle of wine left there to chill
after the Act of Union.

There is, surely, in this story
a moral. A moral for our times.
What if I put him to my head
and squeezed it out of him,
like the juice of freshly squeezed limes,
or a lemon sorbet?

*马尔登早年精研邓恩的隐喻诗,而这首看似荒诞的道德叙事诗,同样隐喻了一种对爱尔兰和英格兰之间关系的理解,即诗歌中提到的英联邦三省合并法案的颁布。整首诗发生在“Trinity College”即剑桥圣三一学院,但Trinity一词让我们联想到的是“三位一体”的英联邦各省的关系,因此这首诗也是反应了作者对“三省合并法案”下的爱尔兰处境的理解,是一种政治伦理的隐喻:如同那同样平等地诞生自亚当夏娃的爱尔兰先祖,如今只是留守于“三位一体”的英联邦的一隅,好似两个在寒冷中颤栗的酒瓶......而这些作者绞尽脑汁榨出的(squeezed)看似有点“反动”(upheaval)如蛙(Frog)一样鼓噪的思想念头,又或者说内心的道德诉求,会不会只是茶余饭后的一杯青柠汁,又或一杯让人暂时清醒平静的柠檬沙冰?相信对此的更深体悟,需要我们反复阅读这首看似荒诞,并且语言风格也显得漫不经心的打油诗(doggerel)。另外,需要提及的一些隐喻,比如池塘(pond),爱尔兰的首府都柏林(Dublin )的原意即为“黑色池塘”。另外爱尔兰的先祖据有神话记载乃是诺亚的孙女Cessair和一位名叫Fintan的男人,这或许是诗歌所提到的那一对(a pair)。


《采集蘑菇》*

当他跪在父母坟前
那种茴香和龙蒿的味道——
他几乎不能将之分辨——

充塞着他的嘴。看上去他会窒息。
为何他要遭遇打击
因悲伤,不是源自他的父母,

而是源自一个从海狸皮毛下逃离的女人,
那皮毛产自波特兰,缅因州,或者,是的,波特兰,俄里岗州——
他几乎不能将之分辨——

并且,何以他现在要品咂着
她那股强烈的气息,她的少许的腌黄瓜,
当他跪在父母坟前?

*

他望向四周。他记得她的闲谈
有关何以大地和天空会暗下来——
“你几乎不能将之分辨”——

当帝蝶飞越而过
带着它们对乳草的饥饿:“一次翅膀的扇动,某些人以为,
会激发起所有风暴的

父母,以一次飓风的强力
击打着你的爱尔兰的莫赫之崖。”
于是:“乳草和帝蝶“发明了”彼此。”

*

他望向四周。一盘茶炊里的奶牛香芹草。
他已弄错了母亲的姓氏,“雷根,”混淆自安吉尔的;
当他跪在父母坟前
他几乎不能将之分辨。


《Gathering Mushrooms》

As he knelt by the grave of his mother and father
the taste of dill, or tarragon-
he could barely tell one from the other-

filled his mouth. It seemed as if he might smother.
Why should he be stricken
with grief, not for his mother and father,

but a woman slinking from the fur of a sea-otter
In Portland, Maine, or, yes, Portland, Oregon-
he could barely tell one from the other-

and why should he now savour
the tang of her, her little pickled gherkin,
as he knelt by the grave of his mother and father?

*

He looked about. He remembered her palaver
on how both earth and sky would darken-
'You could barely tell one from the other'-

while the Monarch butterflies passed over
in their milkweed-hunger: 'A wing-beat, some reckon,
may trigger off the mother and father

of all storms, striking your Irish Cliffs of Moher
with the force of a hurricane.'
Then: 'Milkweed and Monarch 'invented' each other.'

*

He looked about. Cow's-parsley in a samovar.
He'd mistaken his mother's name, 'Regan, ' for Anger';
as he knelt by the grave of his mother and father
he could barely tell one from the other.

*这首爱尔兰风俗诗一如既往的披着漫不经心的言辞,尽管马尔登以语言复杂而机巧的构词法著称。笔者妄自揣度,它似乎讲述的是爱尔兰后裔沉迷于来自美国的世俗文化(那个缅因州女子所隐喻的),而忘记了自己父母或父母“姓氏”所隐喻的传统历史文化。并且,全诗因飓风,悬崖等意象的出现,隐含了作者对这种现状的愤慨。笔者所能揣度的几个相关意象:波特兰出产海狸;“乳草和帝蝶”互相的发明,来自帝蝶对乳草的渴望,这也隐喻了传统或者父辈对爱尔兰后代的重要作用;“安吉尔”(Anger)这个姓氏暗藏着父辈对后代的愤怒;命名为“采蘑菇”,似乎是取自全诗的结构,爱尔兰式古老的慢歌谣曲。

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